In total Stella produced 24 black paintings, each with a distinct title. Supposedly these paintings were to be devoid of meaning, except that they conjured up powerful images in some viewers due to their mysterious titles. The presence of these titles contradicts his philosophy of “what you see is what you see”. For example, his “Bethlehem’s Hospital” piece gets its name from a mental institution in London. “Die Fahne Hoch!” (The Flag on High) echoes a phrase from a Nazi marching song. “Arbeit Macht Frei” (Work will set you free) is a phrase hung above the gates of Nazi concentration camps such as Auschwitz. The dark paint combined with the even darker names gave the black paintings a moody, even Romantic, feel. In fact, in some of the earlier paintings it’s difficult to even make out the stripes since the black stripes are painted over a dark background.

 The creation of the aluminum paintings created a debate concerning the meaning of Stella’s work and the important role of industrial materials in Minimalist art. There are 12 aluminum paintings in total and in these works, Stella continued his explorations that he began with his black paintings with a few changes. For example, while his black paintings had blurred edges around the stripes, Stella used guidelines to make the edges in his aluminum paintings sharper. This took away the painterly feel and made the aluminum paintings seem more mechanical.

 His aluminum paintings also introduced shaped canvases which are canvases cut into shapes other than the traditional rectangle or square. In these shaped canvas paintings, his stripes would follow the shape of the canvas, attracting the eyes towards the shape. Finally, he discovered that painting with aluminum paint gave his artwork a reflective property that further removed meaning from the works making them look more like industrial objects than paintings, or flat surfaces with paint on them.

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Orlan
The Reincarnation of Saint Orlan
1990
“The Reincarnation of Saint Orlan is a series of videotaped surgical performances. It started with the creation of a digital image, computer software used to morph her face with that of various figures perceived as “beautiful” by male artists. Then, through cosmetic surgery, Orlan integrated the composite into her face through ten cosmetic surgeries. 
Orlan’s flesh is her medium and she documents her transformation to her audience. She seeks to reject feminity and nature’s constraints proclaiming, “my work is a struggle against the innate, the inexorable, the programmed, Nature, DNA (which is our direct rival as far as artists of representation are concerned), and God!”
O’Bryan, Jill. Saint Orlan Faces Reincarnation. 56. College Art Association, 50-56. Print. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/777720 .>.

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Orlan

The Reincarnation of Saint Orlan

1990

“The Reincarnation of Saint Orlan is a series of videotaped surgical performances. It started with the creation of a digital image, computer software used to morph her face with that of various figures perceived as “beautiful” by male artists. Then, through cosmetic surgery, Orlan integrated the composite into her face through ten cosmetic surgeries.

Orlan’s flesh is her medium and she documents her transformation to her audience. She seeks to reject feminity and nature’s constraints proclaiming, “my work is a struggle against the innate, the inexorable, the programmed, Nature, DNA (which is our direct rival as far as artists of representation are concerned), and God!”

O’Bryan, Jill. Saint Orlan Faces Reincarnation. 56. College Art Association, 50-56. Print. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/777720 .>.

I went to the Art Museum of Hong Kong to view the artworks on display. Although there weren’t any Western arts there (aside from a lot of reproduction prints of western paintings, but those don’t count), there were plenty of Chinese works that have been influenced by western art. For example one piece that caught my attention was Wu Guazhong’s Leaving Youth Behind (2009). When I saw this piece I was instantly reminded of Jackson Pollock’s drip technique. Thick dark lines and shapes of what looked like ink were splattered and thrown across the sheet. It was strange seeing this abstract painting in a room filled with naturalistic and realistic subjects. I later learned that Guazhong was a bit of a pioneer in Chinese history and that he was one of the first to forsake realism for abstraction. He was trained in European style and technique by a French-trained artist named Lin Fengmian. In the 1940’s he went to France and would eventually become known as one of the greats of Chinese modernism.

Other paintings show evidence of western techniques of realism and naturalism. Monkeys and Snowy Pine by Gao Qifeng is a combination of Japanese realism and western naturalism. Other paintings that looked as though they contained nothing but blotches of vivid colors are reminiscent of abstract expressionism. Although the artists may have adopted certain western ideas, all of the works still had a traditional Chinese style to them, either through brushwork or chosen mediums, and would not be mistaken for a western artwork. By combining western ideas while remaining true to their own culture these artists have been able to create something that is new, yet still feels traditional.

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Franz Kline, Probst 1, 1960, Oil on Canvas, Abstract Expressionism
Two years before creating his black and white abstract paintings, Kline worked odd jobs, creating murals and paintings of furniture. This changed when his friend Kooning brought over a projector and Kline used this to enlarge his drawings to the point of abstraction. This inspired him to reproduce these magnified parts of sketches as large paintings.
This piece seems like a typical black and white work by Kline, but closer inspection shows that there is more color in this painting than what is normally seen. Colors of yellow and salmon are used to illuminate the massive black shapes and giving them a warmer temperature.  This piece exemplifies his later work where he uses a wider variety of color.
The Painting Techniques of Franz Kline: Chief. 2012. Video. Art Babble, New York. Web. 5 May 2013. &lt;http://www.artbabble.org/video/moma/painting-techniques-franz-kline-chief&gt;.
“Franz Kline.” The Art Story. The Art Story Foundation, n.d. Web. 5 May 2013. &lt;http://www.theartstory.org/artist-kline-franz.htm&gt;.

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Franz Kline, Probst 1, 1960, Oil on Canvas, Abstract Expressionism

Two years before creating his black and white abstract paintings, Kline worked odd jobs, creating murals and paintings of furniture. This changed when his friend Kooning brought over a projector and Kline used this to enlarge his drawings to the point of abstraction. This inspired him to reproduce these magnified parts of sketches as large paintings.

This piece seems like a typical black and white work by Kline, but closer inspection shows that there is more color in this painting than what is normally seen. Colors of yellow and salmon are used to illuminate the massive black shapes and giving them a warmer temperature.  This piece exemplifies his later work where he uses a wider variety of color.

The Painting Techniques of Franz Kline: Chief. 2012. Video. Art Babble, New York. Web. 5 May 2013. <http://www.artbabble.org/video/moma/painting-techniques-franz-kline-chief>.

“Franz Kline.” The Art Story. The Art Story Foundation, n.d. Web. 5 May 2013. <http://www.theartstory.org/artist-kline-franz.htm>.

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Chris Burden, All the Submarines of the United States of America, 1987, Cardboard, vinyl thread, typeface, Installation Art 
This work consists of 625 identical cardboard models that represent the USA’s submarine fleet. On the wall behind them lists the names of each of the submarines. The artist suspended the models from the ceiling at various heights so that at first glance they appear to be a school of fish. It neither celebrates nor condemns the US military, merely showing an important historical component of the United States’ power. It was created during the cold war and displays the idea of power in numbers.
 Dallas Museum of Art. N.p.. Web. 10 Apr 2013. &lt;http://dallasmuseumofart.org:9090/emuseum/view/objects/asitem/People$00402429/0?t:state:flow=286bfd0b-e70b-43d1-b8a8-76389dfa6066&gt;.

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Chris Burden, All the Submarines of the United States of America, 1987, Cardboard, vinyl thread, typeface, Installation Art 

This work consists of 625 identical cardboard models that represent the USA’s submarine fleet. On the wall behind them lists the names of each of the submarines. The artist suspended the models from the ceiling at various heights so that at first glance they appear to be a school of fish. It neither celebrates nor condemns the US military, merely showing an important historical component of the United States’ power. It was created during the cold war and displays the idea of power in numbers.

 Dallas Museum of Art. N.p.. Web. 10 Apr 2013. <http://dallasmuseumofart.org:9090/emuseum/view/objects/asitem/People$00402429/0?t:state:flow=286bfd0b-e70b-43d1-b8a8-76389dfa6066>.

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Alberto Giacometti, The Forest, 1950, Painted Bronze, Surrealism Giacometti admits that the arrangement of these figures was an accident. By placing the figures on the floor, he realized that they made up two groups that seemed to correspond with what he was looking for. The male figures in his sculptures usually represented him or his brother. The female figures represented the prostitutes he would frequent.Giacometti studied the human head throughout his life and was fascinated by the human eyes, which he believed were the core of humans and of life. After witnessing two deaths, this fascination heightened and he strove to convey this in his sculptures.“Biography of an Œuvre.” Foundation-Giacometti. N.p.. Web. 10 Apr 2013. &lt;http://www.fondation-giacometti.fr/en/art/16/discover-giacometti/&gt;.“The Forest (Composition with Seven Figures and a Head).”The Metropolitan Museum. N.p.. Web. 10 Apr 2013. &lt;http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/210010435&gt;.

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Alberto Giacometti, The Forest, 1950, Painted Bronze, Surrealism
 
Giacometti admits that the arrangement of these figures was an accident. By placing the figures on the floor, he realized that they made up two groups that seemed to correspond with what he was looking for. The male figures in his sculptures usually represented him or his brother. The female figures represented the prostitutes he would frequent.
Giacometti studied the human head throughout his life and was fascinated by the human eyes, which he believed were the core of humans and of life. After witnessing two deaths, this fascination heightened and he strove to convey this in his sculptures.
“Biography of an Œuvre.” Foundation-Giacometti. N.p.. Web. 10 Apr 2013. <http://www.fondation-giacometti.fr/en/art/16/discover-giacometti/>.
“The Forest (Composition with Seven Figures and a Head).”The Metropolitan Museum. N.p.. Web. 10 Apr 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/210010435>.

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Richard Neutra,Kaufmann House,Architecture,1946-48,International Style
This house was built in 1946 by Richard Neutra as a winter home for Frank Llyod Wright. The house represents Neutra’s modernist ideals with its cantilevered roof and tall glass sliding walls. It also has an outdoor sleeping area which Neutra called a “Gloriette”. With his design, Neutra was able to blur the distinction between indoor and outdoor. He used stone mixed with industrial materials such as steel and aluminum, and a variety of colors on the interior set against white, dark, and neutral colors. The outdoor living areas are sheltered by adjustable walls that offer protection against sandstorms.
McGrew, Patrick. “The Hidden History of the Kaufmann House.” n. page. Web. 10 Apr. 2013. &lt;http://www.kcet.org/arts/artbound/counties/riverside/iconography.html&gt;.

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Richard Neutra,Kaufmann House,Architecture,1946-48,International Style

This house was built in 1946 by Richard Neutra as a winter home for Frank Llyod Wright. The house represents Neutra’s modernist ideals with its cantilevered roof and tall glass sliding walls. It also has an outdoor sleeping area which Neutra called a “Gloriette”. With his design, Neutra was able to blur the distinction between indoor and outdoor. He used stone mixed with industrial materials such as steel and aluminum, and a variety of colors on the interior set against white, dark, and neutral colors. The outdoor living areas are sheltered by adjustable walls that offer protection against sandstorms.

McGrew, Patrick. “The Hidden History of the Kaufmann House.” n. page. Web. 10 Apr. 2013. <http://www.kcet.org/arts/artbound/counties/riverside/iconography.html>.

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Kenneth Noland,Whirl,1960,Acrylic on Canvas,Abstract Expression
 Noland’s paintings are characterized by minimalist lines and color. His work has influenced a range of abstractionists who experiment with ultra-simplified forms to tap into basic human emotions. Noland spent a lifetime experimenting with forms and colors to challenge his viewer’s perceptions without offering any context. He is best known for his series of “Target” paintings.
In 1958 he began applying a variety of color to a basic circle template that would contrast well to the square support. This particular piece has an interesting feature: a smeared, jagged edge that suggests a burst of infinite color that stretches outwards, away from the center.
His legacy is taking abstract expressionism and simplifying it further. His goal as a painter was to take the simplest of line, color, and shapes and create movement on canvas.
Wolf, Justin. “Kenneth Noland .” The Art Story. The Art Story Foundation. Web. 10 Apr 2013. &lt;http://www.theartstory.org/artist-noland-kenneth.htm&gt;.

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Kenneth Noland,Whirl,1960,Acrylic on Canvas,Abstract Expression

 Noland’s paintings are characterized by minimalist lines and color. His work has influenced a range of abstractionists who experiment with ultra-simplified forms to tap into basic human emotions. Noland spent a lifetime experimenting with forms and colors to challenge his viewer’s perceptions without offering any context. He is best known for his series of “Target” paintings.

In 1958 he began applying a variety of color to a basic circle template that would contrast well to the square support. This particular piece has an interesting feature: a smeared, jagged edge that suggests a burst of infinite color that stretches outwards, away from the center.

His legacy is taking abstract expressionism and simplifying it further. His goal as a painter was to take the simplest of line, color, and shapes and create movement on canvas.

Wolf, Justin. “Kenneth Noland .” The Art Story. The Art Story Foundation. Web. 10 Apr 2013. <http://www.theartstory.org/artist-noland-kenneth.htm>.

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Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, The Harvest, 1922, German Expressionism
 Rottluff was one of the founding members of Die Brucke found inspiration in Neo-Impressionist artists. The expressionist used bright colors and dissonant hues to create tension and the illusion of perspective. They believed that every strong feeling could be expressed through art.
The Harvest represents this idea through its color and composition as well as the expressionists’ beliefs about nature and humanity. The painting depicts a scene of rural men doing honest work away from the corruption of the city. Saturated warm and cool colors overwhelm the eye and express a tribute to the unity of man, nature, and work through a folk-art-like representation.
. Nature Revealed Exploring the relationship between Nature and Creativity. Grand Rapids: GRAM Education Department, Print. &lt;http://www.artmuseumgr.org/uploads/assets/NR_Rottluff_cover.pdf&gt;.

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Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, The Harvest, 1922, German Expressionism

 Rottluff was one of the founding members of Die Brucke found inspiration in Neo-Impressionist artists. The expressionist used bright colors and dissonant hues to create tension and the illusion of perspective. They believed that every strong feeling could be expressed through art.

The Harvest represents this idea through its color and composition as well as the expressionists’ beliefs about nature and humanity. The painting depicts a scene of rural men doing honest work away from the corruption of the city. Saturated warm and cool colors overwhelm the eye and express a tribute to the unity of man, nature, and work through a folk-art-like representation.

. Nature Revealed Exploring the relationship between Nature and Creativity. Grand Rapids: GRAM Education Department, Print. <http://www.artmuseumgr.org/uploads/assets/NR_Rottluff_cover.pdf>.

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Jackson Pollock, Number 1 (Lavender Mist), 1950, Oil, enamel, and aluminum on canvas, Abstract Expressionism
Pollock was the first recorded artist to do “all-over” paint, a technique which involves pouring paint onto a medium rather than using a brush. He said that “The painting has a life of its own. I try to let it come through”. The various sized, splattered lines prevent the eyes from ever resting, a result of his erratic gestures while painting. His style is an example of Abstract Expressionism which seeks to show emotions though non-representational forms. His artistic process was developed over many years.
Demange, Dana. “Jackson Pollock, 1912-1956: He Invented a New Kind of Painting That Changed the Way People Looked at Art.” Many Things. N.p.. Web. 9 Apr 2013. &lt;http://www.manythings.org/voa/people/Jackson_Pollock.html&gt;.
Pioch, Nicolas. “Action Painting.” WebMuseum, Paris. N.p., 16 07 2002. Web. 9 Apr 2013. &lt;http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/pollock/lavender-mist/&gt;.

arth207-spring:

Jackson Pollock, Number 1 (Lavender Mist), 1950, Oil, enamel, and aluminum on canvas, Abstract Expressionism

Pollock was the first recorded artist to do “all-over” paint, a technique which involves pouring paint onto a medium rather than using a brush. He said that “The painting has a life of its own. I try to let it come through”. The various sized, splattered lines prevent the eyes from ever resting, a result of his erratic gestures while painting. His style is an example of Abstract Expressionism which seeks to show emotions though non-representational forms. His artistic process was developed over many years.

Demange, Dana. “Jackson Pollock, 1912-1956: He Invented a New Kind of Painting That Changed the Way People Looked at Art.” Many Things. N.p.. Web. 9 Apr 2013. <http://www.manythings.org/voa/people/Jackson_Pollock.html>.

Pioch, Nicolas. “Action Painting.” WebMuseum, Paris. N.p., 16 07 2002. Web. 9 Apr 2013. <http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/pollock/lavender-mist/>.